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Seed protein fraction electrophoresis in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) accessions and wild species

Singh, Apekshita, Raina, SoomNath, Rajpal, VijayRani, Singh, AnurudhK.
Physiology and molecular biology of plants 2018 v.24 no.3 pp. 465-481
Arachis hypogaea, albumins, cluster analysis, cotyledons, gene pool, genome, genotype, globulins, peanuts, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, seed storage proteins
Total seed storage proteins were studied in 50 accessions of A. hypogaea (11 A. hypogaea ssp. hypogaea var hypogaea, 13 A. hypogaea ssp. hypogaea var hirsuta, 11 A. hypogaea ssp. fastigiata var fastigiata and 15 A. hypogaea ssp. fastigiata var. vulgaris accessions) in SDS PAGE. These accessions were also analysed for albumin and globulin seed protein fractions. Among the six seed protein markers presently used, it was found that globulin fraction showed maximum diversity (77.2%) in A. hypogaea accessions followed by albumin (52.3%), denatured total soluble protein fraction in embryo (33.3%) and cotyledon (28.5%). The cluster analysis based on combined data of cotyledons, embryos, albumins and globulins seed protein fractions demarcated the accessions of two subspecies hypogaea and fastigiata into two separate clusters supported by 51% bootstrap value, with few exceptions, suggesting the genotypes to be moderately diverse. Native and denatured total soluble seed storage proteins were also electrophoretically analysed in 27 wild Arachis species belonging to six sections of the genus. Cluster analysis using different methods were performed for different seed proteins data alone and also in combination. Section Caulorrhizae (C genome) and Triseminatae (T genome) formed one, distantly related group to A. hypogaea and other section Arachis species in the dendrogram based on denatured seed storage proteins data. The present analysis has maintained that the section Arachis species belong to primary and secondary genepools and, sections Procumbenetes and Erectoides belong to tertiary gene pools.