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Comparison of different analytical techniques for the analysis of carotenoids in tamarillo (Solanum betaceum Cav.)

Giuffrida, Daniele, Zoccali, Mariosimone, Arigò, Adriana, Cacciola, Francesco, Roa, Coralia Osorio, Dugo, Paola, Mondello, Luigi
Archives of biochemistry and biophysics 2018 v.646 pp. 161-167
Solanum betaceum, antheraxanthin, esters, liquids, mass spectrometry, supercritical fluid extraction
An on-line method based on the coupling of supercritical fluid extraction and supercritical fluid chromatography with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry detection (SFE-SFC-QqQ/MS) for the native carotenoids characterization and apocarotenoids detection in yellow tamarillo was developed for the first time; this is the first work reporting the application of this methodology for the apocarotenoids analysis in any matrix.An off-line liquid extraction (LE) and analysis by LC-PDA-MS, using both a conventional C30 (3 μm I.D. particles) and a novel C30 column with sub-2 micron particles were also performed. 31 compounds were extracted and identified by the developed SFE-SFC-QqQ/MS methodology in less than 18 min, including free carotenoids, carotenoids monoesters, carotenoids diesters and apocarotenoids in a very fast, and efficient way; moreover among those 31 compounds, 3 antheraxanthin monoesters and 9 apocarotenoids were detected in yellow tamarillo for the first time, namely apo-8′-zeaxanthinal, apo-10′-zeaxanthinal, apo-12′-zeaxanthinal, apo-14′-zeaxanthinal, apo-15′-zeaxanthinal, apo-12′-carotenal, apo-14′-carotenal and the two apocarotenoids esters apo-10′-zeaxanthinal-C4:0 and apo-8′-zeaxanthinal-C12:0. Further, the novel sub-2 micron particles C30 column, showed a better performance compared to the conventional C30 one. Finally a quantitative comparison of two selected carotenoids was performed by using SFE-SFC-QqQ/MS, SFC-QqQ/MS, and LC-PDA, which showed overall comparable results.