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Comparison of different analytical techniques for the analysis of carotenoids in tamarillo (Solanum betaceum Cav.)
- Giuffrida, Daniele, Zoccali, Mariosimone, Arigò, Adriana, Cacciola, Francesco, Roa, Coralia Osorio, Dugo, Paola, Mondello, Luigi
- Archives of biochemistry and biophysics 2018 v.646 pp. 161-167
- Solanum betaceum, antheraxanthin, esters, liquids, mass spectrometry, supercritical fluid extraction
- An on-line method based on the coupling of supercritical fluid extraction and supercritical fluid chromatography with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry detection (SFE-SFC-QqQ/MS) for the native carotenoids characterization and apocarotenoids detection in yellow tamarillo was developed for the first time; this is the first work reporting the application of this methodology for the apocarotenoids analysis in any matrix.An off-line liquid extraction (LE) and analysis by LC-PDA-MS, using both a conventional C30 (3 μm I.D. particles) and a novel C30 column with sub-2 micron particles were also performed. 31 compounds were extracted and identified by the developed SFE-SFC-QqQ/MS methodology in less than 18 min, including free carotenoids, carotenoids monoesters, carotenoids diesters and apocarotenoids in a very fast, and efficient way; moreover among those 31 compounds, 3 antheraxanthin monoesters and 9 apocarotenoids were detected in yellow tamarillo for the first time, namely apo-8′-zeaxanthinal, apo-10′-zeaxanthinal, apo-12′-zeaxanthinal, apo-14′-zeaxanthinal, apo-15′-zeaxanthinal, apo-12′-carotenal, apo-14′-carotenal and the two apocarotenoids esters apo-10′-zeaxanthinal-C4:0 and apo-8′-zeaxanthinal-C12:0. Further, the novel sub-2 micron particles C30 column, showed a better performance compared to the conventional C30 one. Finally a quantitative comparison of two selected carotenoids was performed by using SFE-SFC-QqQ/MS, SFC-QqQ/MS, and LC-PDA, which showed overall comparable results.