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Predicting blood β-hydroxybutyrate using milk Fourier transform infrared spectrum, milk composition, and producer-reported variables with multiple linear regression, partial least squares regression, and artificial neural network
- Pralle, R.S., Weigel, K.W., White, H.M.
- Journal of dairy science 2018 v.101 no.5 pp. 4378-4387
- 3-hydroxybutyric acid, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, absorbance, blood, computer software, cows, dairy herds, data collection, diabetes, farm management, farms, graphs, herd improvement, hyperketonemia, least squares, milk, milk analysis, milk composition, neural networks, prediction, California, North Carolina, Wisconsin
- Prediction of postpartum hyperketonemia (HYK) using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry analysis could be a practical diagnostic option for farms because these data are now available from routine milk analysis during Dairy Herd Improvement testing. The objectives of this study were to (1) develop and evaluate blood β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) prediction models using multivariate linear regression (MLR), partial least squares regression (PLS), and artificial neural network (ANN) methods and (2) evaluate whether milk FTIR spectrum (mFTIR)–based models are improved with the inclusion of test-day variables (mTest; milk composition and producer-reported data). Paired blood and milk samples were collected from multiparous cows 5 to 18 d postpartum at 3 Wisconsin farms (3,629 observations from 1,013 cows). Blood BHB concentration was determined by a Precision Xtra meter (Abbot Diabetes Care, Alameda, CA), and milk samples were analyzed by a privately owned laboratory (AgSource, Menomonie, WI) for components and FTIR spectrum absorbance. Producer-recorded variables were extracted from farm management software. A blood BHB ≥1.2 mmol/L was considered HYK. The data set was divided into a training set (n = 3,020) and an external testing set (n = 609). Model fitting was implemented with JMP 12 (SAS Institute, Cary, NC). A 5-fold cross-validation was performed on the training data set for the MLR, PLS, and ANN prediction methods, with square root of blood BHB as the dependent variable. Each method was fitted using 3 combinations of variables: mFTIR, mTest, or mTest + mFTIR variables. Models were evaluated based on coefficient of determination, root mean squared error, and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. Four models (PLS–mTest + mFTIR, ANN–mFTIR, ANN–mTest, and ANN–mTest + mFTIR) were chosen for further evaluation in the testing set after fitting to the full training set. In the cross-validation analysis, model fit was greatest for ANN, followed by PLS and MLR. Diagnostic strength after cross-validation was poorest for MLR and was similar for ANN and PLS. Models that used mTest + mFTIR variables performed marginally better than models that used only mFTIR or mTest variables. These results suggest that blood BHB prediction models that use mFTIR + mTest variables may be useful additions to existing HYK diagnostic and management programs.