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Substrate cleavage and duration of action of botulinum neurotoxin type FA (“H, HA”)

Pellett, Sabine, Tepp, William H., Lin, Guangyun, Johnson, Eric A.
Toxicon 2018 v.147 pp. 38-46
animal models, botulinum toxin, chimerism, cytosol, enzyme activity, humans, mice, neurons, rats, spinal cord
Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) type FA is the only known naturally occurring chimeric BoNT of domains of BoNT/A and BoNT/F. BoNT/FA consists of an F5-like light chain (LC), a unique heavy chain (HC) translocation domain, and a HC receptor binding domain similar to BoNT/A1. Previous analyses of purified BoNT/FA have indicated a 5–10-fold greater potency in cultured human or rat neurons as compared to BoNT/A1 and a 400–500-fold greater potency compared to BoNT/B1. However, in vivo potency in mice was about 5-fold lower than BoNT/A1 or/B1. In this report, species specificity was examined by cell-based assays using primary neurons from mice and examining VAMP1 and 2 cleavage. The data indicated similar potency of BoNT/FA in primary mouse spinal cord neurons as previously observed in primary rat and human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) derived neuronal cell models, and equal enzymatic cleavage of mouse VAMP1 and 2 isoforms. Since the duration of action of BoNTs is due to continuous enzymatic activity of the LC in the neuronal cytosol, BoNT/FA was expected to have a short duration of action due to its F-type LC. In this report the duration of action of BoNT/FA was compared to that of BoNT/F1,/F5, and/B1 in both hiPSC derived neurons and in the in vivo mouse model. The data indicate a duration of action of BoNT/FA similar to BoNT/B1, while BoNT/F5 had a short duration of action similar to BoNT/F1.