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Dry and wet ozonation of denim: Degradation products, reaction mechanism, toxicity and cytotoxicity assessment
- Ben Hamida, Sarra, Iftekhar, Sidra, Ambat, Indu, Srivastava, Varsha, Sillanpää, Mika, Amri, Zahra, Ladhari, Neji
- Chemosphere 2018 v.203 pp. 514-520
- antibacterial properties, aquatic environment, bacteria, bioluminescence, byproducts, cytotoxicity, denim, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, hepatoma, human cell lines, human health, humans, median effective concentration, oxidation, ozonation, ozone, reaction mechanisms
- The study aims to identify the denim ozonation by-products under different operating conditions and investigate the chemical toxicity of these compounds via the inhibitory effect of the sample on the light emission of bioluminescent bacteria (Vibriofischeri) and on human health using the HepG2 human hepatoma cell line. Various by-products in treated denim extract were detected w gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. The results revealed that the main oxidation by-product was isatin (1H-indole-2,3-dione), which formed in excess amounts on wet ozonated denim. It was observed that this compound showed more toxicity when high ozone concentrations were used, especially in the presence of moisture. It exhibited a considerable antibacterial activity. EC20 and EC50 average values of 5.55% and 13.47% were obtained with a wet ozonation rinse bath at 48 g/N·m3, which makes it hazardous to aquatic environments.