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Carbon Dioxide and Methane Dynamics in Three Coastal Systems of Cadiz Bay (SW Spain)

Burgos, Macarena, Ortega, Teodora, Forja, Jesús
Estuaries and coasts 2018 v.41 no.4 pp. 1069-1088
carbon dioxide, coasts, humans, methane, salt marshes, seasonal variation, surface water, temperature, tides, Atlantic Ocean, Spain
The partial pressure of CO₂ (pCO₂) and concentration of dissolved CH₄ in surface waters have been studied in three coastal systems connected to Cadiz Bay (southwestern coast of Spain) over different time scales. The concentration of CH₄ varied from 1 to 4200 nmol kg⁻¹ (192.1 ± 463.6 nmol kg⁻¹) and the saturation percent from 19 to 159,577% (6645 ± 16,921%), and pCO₂ from 315 to 3240 μatm (841.9 ± 466.3 μatm), with saturation percent values varying between 72 and 981% (220 ± 133%). The seasonal variation of pCO₂ mainly depends on the temperature. On the contrary, the annual distribution of dissolved CH₄ is associated with the precipitation regime. In addition, pCO₂ and dissolved CH₄ showed spatial variation. pCO₂ increased toward the inner part of the systems, with the proximity to the discharge points from human activities. Dissolved CH₄ is influenced by both anthropogenic inputs and natural processes such as benthic supply and exchange with the adjacent salt marshes. pCO₂ and dissolved CH₄ also varied with the tides: The highest concentrations were measured during the ebb, which suggests that the systems export CO₂ and CH₄ to the Bay and adjacent Atlantic Ocean.