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Phycoremediation potential, physiological, and biochemical response of Amphora subtropica and Dunaliella sp. to nickel pollution

Dahmen-Ben Moussa, Ines, Athmouni, Khaled, Chtourou, Haifa, Ayadi, Habib, Sayadi, Sami, Dhouib, Abdelhafidh
Journal of applied phycology 2018 v.30 no.2 pp. 931-941
Amphora, Dunaliella, aquatic environment, bioaccumulation, bioactive properties, carbohydrates, carotenoids, catalase, lipids, microalgae, nickel, phenolic compounds, pollution, superoxide dismutase, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances
Metal pollution can produce many biological effects on aquatic environments. The marine diatom Amphora subtropica and the green alga Dunaliella sp. possess a high metal absorption capacity. Nickel (Ni) removal by living cells of A. subtropica and Dunaliella sp. was tested in cultures exposed to different Ni concentrations (100, 200, 300, and 500 mg L⁻¹). The amount of Ni removed by the microalgae increased with the time of exposure and the initial Ni concentration in the medium. The metal, which was mainly removed by bioadsorption to Dunaliella sp. cell surfaces (93.63% of total Ni (for 500 mg Ni L⁻¹) and by bioaccumulation (80.82% of total Ni (for 300 mg Ni L⁻¹) into Amphora subtropica cells, also inhibited growth. Exposure to Ni drastically reduced the carbohydrate and protein concentrations and increased total lipids from 6.3 to 43.1 pg cell⁻¹, phenolics 0.092 to 0.257 mg GAE g⁻¹ (Fw), and carotenoid content, from 0.08 to 0.59 mg g⁻¹ (Fw), in A. subtropica. In Dunaliella sp., total lipids increased from 26.1 to 65.3 pg cell⁻¹, phenolics from 0.084 to 0.289 mg GAE g⁻¹ (Fw), and carotenoid content from 0.41 to 0.97 mg g⁻¹ (Fw). These compounds had an important role in protecting the algae against ROS generated by Ni. In order to cope with Ni stress shown by the increase of TBARS level, enzymatic (SOD, CAT, and GPx) ROS scavenging mechanisms were induced.