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Effect of iron, zinc and manganese shortage-induced change on photosynthetic pigments, some osmoregulators and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters in lettuce

Roosta, H.R., Estaji, A., Niknam, F.
Photosynthetica 2018 v.56 no.2 pp. 606-615
biochemical pathways, biomarkers, chlorophyll, cultivars, electron transfer, energy flow, fluorescence, iron, leaf lettuce, manganese, nutrient deficiencies, photochemistry, photosystem II, pigments, proline, specific energy, sugars, zinc
Although the beneficial role of Fe, Zn, and Mn on many physiological and biochemical processes is well established, effects of each of these elements on chlorophyll (Chl) a fluorescence and photosynthetic pigment contents is not well studied. The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of Fe, Zn, and Mn deficiency in two lettuce cultivars. The parameters investigated could serve also as physiological and biochemical markers in order to identify stress-tolerant cultivars. Our results indicated that microelement shortage significantly decreased contents of photosynthetic pigments in both lettuce cultivars. Chl a fluorescence parameters including maximal quantum yield of PSII photochemistry and performance index decreased under micronutrient deficiency, while relative variable fluorescence at J-step and minimal fluorescence yield of the dark-adapted state increased under such conditions in both cultivars. Micronutrient deficiency also reduced all parameters of quantum yield and specific energy fluxes excluding quantum yield of energy dissipation, quantum yield of reduction of end electron acceptors at the PSI, and total performance index for the photochemical activity. Osmoregulators, such as proline, soluble sugar, and total phenols were enhanced in plants grown under micronutrient deficiency. Fe, Zn, and Mn deficiency led to a lesser production of dry mass. The Fe deficiency was more destructive than that of Zn and Mn on the efficiency of PSII in both lettuce cultivars. Our results suggest that the leaf lettuce, which showed a higher efficiency of PSII, electron transport, quantum yield, specific energy fluxes, and osmoregulators under micronutrient deficiency, was more tolerant to stress conditions than crisphead lettuce.