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Toxicity of soybean-registered agrochemicals to Telenomus podisi and Trissolcus basalis immature stages
- Zantedeschi, Ronaldo, Rakes, Matheus, Pasini, Rafael Antonio, Araújo, Mikael Bolke, Bueno, Flávio Amaral, Grützmacher, Anderson Dionei
- Phytoparasitica 2018 v.46 no.2 pp. 203-212
- Bacillus thuringiensis, Telenomus, Trissolcus basalis, acephate, biological control, crops, deltamethrin, diflubenzuron, ecosystems, eggs, fenitrothion, flubendiamide, herbicides, immatures, lufenuron, parasitism, parasitoids, soybeans, toxicity
- Biological control of phytophagous bugs in soybean crops is efficiently performed by egg parasitoids, such as Telenomus podisi and Trissolcus basalis. Based on this, the use of agrochemicals in these crops must be managed consciously, making use of pesticides that are selective to the egg of these parasitoids, in order to ensure a balanced ecosystem. The aim of this study was to assess the selectivity of 15 registered pesticides to the immature stages (pre and post-parasitism) of T. podisi and T. basalis, following the method proposed by the “International Organization for Biological and Integrated Control” (IOBC). Pesticides were classified as class 1 – harmless (RP < 30%); class 2 – slightly harmful (30% ≤ RP ≤ 79%); class 3 – moderately harmful (80% ≤ RP ≤ 99%); and class 4 – harmful (RP > 99%). During pre-parasitism, the insecticides imidacloprid+beta-cyfluthrin, deltamethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin+thiamethoxam, acephate, and fenitrothion reduced parasitism of both parasitoids. The others: flubendiamide, diflubenzuron, Bacillus thuringiensis, lufenuron, and the herbicide isopropylamine were selective, i.e. harmless (class 1), to both parasitoids, except for pyraclostrobin+metconazole, which significantly reduced T. basalis parasitism, being considered slightly harmful (class 2). In post parasitism, all the aforementioned pesticides were harmless to T. podisi and T. basalis. Moreover, in pre-parasitism, T. basalis was found to be more sensitive to the tested pesticides when compared to T. podisi. Still, more studies must be conducted to provide a better understanding of the impact of agrochemicals on these parasitoid species in semi-field conditions.