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Conducting polymer-based electrochemical biosensors for neurotransmitters: A review

Moon, Jong-Min, Thapliyal, Neeta, Hussain, Khalil Khadim, Goyal, Rajendra N., Shim, Yoon-Bo
Biosensors & bioelectronics 2018 v.102 pp. 540-552
acetylcholine, analytical methods, aspartic acid, biosensors, choline, dopamine, electrochemistry, epinephrine, glutamic acid, health services, histamine, hydrogen sulfide, neurotransmitters, nitric oxide, norepinephrine, peripheral nervous system, polymers, serotonin, tyrosine
Neurotransmitters are important biochemical molecules that control behavioral and physiological functions in central and peripheral nervous system. Therefore, the analysis of neurotransmitters in biological samples has a great clinical and pharmaceutical importance. To date, various methods have been developed for their assay. Of the various methods, the electrochemical sensors demonstrated the potential of being robust, selective, sensitive, and real time measurements. Recently, conducting polymers (CPs) and their composites have been widely employed in the fabrication of various electrochemical sensors for the determination of neurotransmitters. Hence, this review presents a brief introduction to the electrochemical biosensors, with the detailed discussion on recent trends in the development and applications of electrochemical neurotransmitter sensors based on CPs and their composites. The review covers the sensing principle of prime neurotransmitters, including glutamate, aspartate, tyrosine, epinephrine, norepinephrine, dopamine, serotonin, histamine, choline, acetylcholine, nitrogen monoxide, and hydrogen sulfide. In addition, the combination with other analytical techniques was also highlighted. Detection challenges and future prospective of the neurotransmitter sensors were discussed for the development of biomedical and healthcare applications.