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Low glycaemic index foods from wild barley and amylose-only barley lines

Sagnelli, Domenico, Chessa, Simona, Mandalari, Giuseppina, Di Martino, Mario, Sorndech, Waraporn, Mamone, Gianfranco, Vincze, Eva, Buillon, Grégoire, Nielsen, Dennis Sandris, Wiese, Maria, Blennow, Andreas, Hebelstrup, Kim H.
Journal of functional foods 2018 v.40 pp. 408-416
Hordeum vulgare, amylose, barley, beta-glucans, blood glucose, breads, colon, digesta, glycemic index, microorganisms, models, resistant starch, viscosity
In this study, we explored possibilities to develop low glycaemic-index foods from barley (Hordeum vulgare – Hv). Barley has a potential to suppress postprandial blood glucose levels, possibly because of its high content of β-glucan (BG). BG content is particularly high in Hordeum vulgare Subsp. spontaneum (Hs), which is the wild ancestor of cultivated barley. Increasing amylose content in starch is another way to decrease the glycaemic index of a starch-rich-food. Therefore, a recently developed Amylose-only barley grain (AO) containing a 99% amylose starch was included. Two in vitro gastro-intestinal models were used to predict glycaemic indices (pGIs). Grains and bread from Hs and AO showed lower pGIs as compared to Hv. The low pGI value of AO was due to the resistant starch. The low pGI of Hs barley grains was caused by increased viscosity of the digesta. A simulated colon was used to predict potential effects on microbiota.