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Protective effect of betaine against galactosamine-induced acute liver injury in rats

Choi, Yeo Jin, Na, Jong Deok, Jun, Doo Sung, Kim, Young Chul
Journal of functional foods 2018 v.44 pp. 65-73
DNA damage, S-adenosylmethionine, betaine, blood serum, cytotoxicity, enzyme activity, galactosamine, glutathione, hepatotoxicity, histopathology, lipid peroxidation, liver, liver diseases, males, metabolism, ornithine decarboxylase, polyamines, protective effect, putrescine, rats
We investigated the protective effect of betaine against galactosamine (GalN)-induced acute hepatic injury. Male rats received betaine from 2 wk prior to GalN treatment. Betaine supplementation inhibited the elevation of serum enzyme activities and the histopathological changes induced by GalN challenge. However, hepatic lipid peroxidation, glutathione levels, and oxidative DNA damage were unaffected by either GalN or betaine treatment. GalN treatment suppressed ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) expression and decreased putrescine levels in liver, both of which were prevented by betaine supplementation. In H4IIE cells, treatment with betaine or S-adenosylmethionine provided complete protection against GalN-induced cytotoxicity. Addition of difluoromethylornithine, an irreversible ODC inhibitor, abolished the protective effect of betaine and S-adenosylmethionine, indicating that depletion of putrescine is critically implicated in GalN-induced cytotoxicity. These results suggest that the beneficial effect of betaine against GalN-induced hepatotoxicity can be attributed to the improvement of polyamine metabolism via elevation of S-adenosylmethionine availability in the liver.