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Pharmacodynamic assessment of diuretic efficacy and braking in a furosemide continuous infusion model

Adin, D., Atkins, C., Papich, M.G.
Journal of veterinary cardiology 2018 v.20 no.2 pp. 92-101
aldosterone, blood sampling, blood serum, creatinine, diuresis, dogs, electrolytes, excretion, furosemide, males, models, pharmacodynamics, potassium, sodium, temporal variation, urine
Diuretic failure is a potential life-ending event but is unpredictable and poorly understood. The objectives of this study were to evaluate pharmacodynamic markers of furosemide-induced diuresis and to investigate mechanisms of diuretic braking in dogs receiving constant rate infusion (CRI) of furosemide.Six healthy male dogs.Raw data and stored samples from one arm of a previously published study were further analyzed to mechanistically investigate causes of diuretic braking in these dogs. Urine volume was recorded hourly during a 5-h furosemide CRI. Urine and blood samples were collected hourly to measure serum and urine electrolytes, urine aldosterone, and plasma and urine furosemide. Serum electrolyte fractional excretion was calculated. Urine sodium concentration was indexed to urine potassium (uNa:uK) and urine furosemide (uNa:uFur) concentrations, plasma furosemide concentration was indexed to urine furosemide concentration (pFur:uFur), and urine aldosterone was indexed to urine creatinine (UAldo:C). Temporal change and the relationship to urine volume were evaluated for these measured and calculated variables.Urine volume was significantly correlated with urine electrolyte amounts and with uNa:uK. The ratio of pFur:uFur decreased during the infusion, whereas furosemide excretion was unchanged.There was a strong relationship between urine volume and absolute urine electrolyte excretion. Urine volume was strongly correlated to uNa:uK, giving it potential as a spot indicator of urine production during diuresis. The decrease in uNa:uK over time during the infusion is consistent with mineralocorticoid modification of urinary electrolyte excretion, supporting renin–angiotensin–aldosterone activation as a cause of diuretic braking in this model.