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Isolation and characterization of N2‐fixing bacteria from giant reed and switchgrass for plant growth promotion and nutrient uptake
- Xu, Jia, Kloepper, Joseph W., Huang, Ping, McInroy, John A., Hu, Chia H.
- Journal of basic microbiology 2018 v.58 no.5 pp. 459-471
- Enterobacter, Panicum virgatum, Sphingomonas trueperi, auxins, biofertilizers, calcium, copper, corn, crops, enzyme activity, fine roots, growth promotion, magnesium, nitrogen-fixing bacteria, nitrogenase, nutrient content, nutrient uptake, plant growth, rhizosphere, root tips, seeds, siderophores, soil, stems, surface area, wheat, zinc
- The aims of this study were to isolate and characterize N₂‐fixing bacteria from giant reed and switchgrass and evaluate their plant growth promotion and nutrient uptake potential for use as biofertilizers. A total of 190 bacteria were obtained from rhizosphere soil and inside stems and roots of giant reed and switchgrass. All the isolates were confirmed to have nitrogenase activity, 96.9% produced auxin, and 85% produced siderophores. Then the top six strains, including Sphingomonas trueperi NNA‐14, Sphingomonas trueperi NNA‐19, Sphingomonas trueperi NNA‐17, Sphingomonas trueperi NNA‐20, Psychrobacillus psychrodurans NP‐3, and Enterobacter oryzae NXU‐38, based on nitrogenase activity, were inoculated on maize and wheat seeds in greenhouse tests to assess their potential benefits to plants. All the selected strains promoted plant growth by increasing at least one plant growth parameter or increasing the nutrient concentration of maize or wheat plants. NNA‐14 outperformed others in promoting early growth and nutrient uptake by maize. Specifically, NNA‐14 significantly increased root length, surface area, and fine roots of maize by 14%, 12%, and 17%, respectively, and enhanced N, Ca, S, B, Cu, and Zn in maize. NNA‐19 and NXU‐38 outperformed others in promoting both early growth and nutrient uptake by wheat. Specifically, NNA‐19 significantly increased root dry weight and number of root tips of wheat by 25% and 96%, respectively, and enhanced Ca in wheat. NXU‐38 significantly increased root length, surface area, and fine roots of wheat by 21%, 13%, and 26%, respectively, and enhanced levels of Ca and Mg in wheat. It is concluded that switchgrass and giant reed are colonized by N₂‐fixing bacteria that have the potential to contribute to plant growth and nutrient uptake by agricultural crops.