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Chemical regulation of body feather microbiota in a wild bird
- Jacob, Staffan, Sallé, Louis, Zinger, Lucie, Chaine, Alexis S., Ducamp, Christine, Boutault, Léa, Russell, Andrew F., Heeb, Philipp
- Molecular ecology 2018 v.27 no.7 pp. 1727-1738
- antimicrobial properties, bacteria, chemical analysis, correlation, feathers, high-throughput nucleotide sequencing, hosts, nests, physiology, uropygial gland, wild birds
- The microbiota has a broad range of impacts on host physiology and behaviour, pointing out the need to improve our comprehension of the drivers of host–microbiota composition. Of particular interest is whether the microbiota is acquired passively, or whether and to what extent hosts themselves shape the acquisition and maintenance of their microbiota. In birds, the uropygial gland produces oily secretions used to coat feathers that have been suggested to act as an antimicrobial defence mechanism regulating body feather microbiota. However, our comprehension of this process is still limited. In this study, we for the first time coupled high‐throughput sequencing of the microbiota of both body feathers and the direct environment (i.e., the nest) in great tits with chemical analyses of the composition of uropygial gland secretions to examine whether host chemicals have either specific effects on some bacteria or nonspecific broad‐spectrum effects on the body feather microbiota. Using a network approach investigating the patterns of co‐occurrence or co‐exclusions between chemicals and bacteria within the body feather microbiota, we found no evidence for specific promicrobial or antimicrobial effects of uropygial gland chemicals. However, we found that one group of chemicals was negatively correlated to bacterial richness on body feathers, and a higher production of these chemicals was associated with a poorer body feather bacterial richness compared to the nest microbiota. Our study provides evidence that chemicals produced by the host might function as a nonspecific broad‐spectrum antimicrobial defence mechanism limiting colonization and/or maintenance of bacteria on body feathers, providing new insight about the drivers of the host's microbiota composition in wild organisms.