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Influence of thermally-oxidized vegetable oils and animal fats on growth performance, liver gene expression, and liver and serum cholesterol and triglycerides in young pigs

Liu, P., Chen, C., Kerr, B. J., Weber, T. E., Johnston, L. J., Shurson, G. C.
Journal of animal science 2014 v.92 pp. 2960-2970
ad libitum feeding, barrows, blood lipids, canola oil, carnitine palmitoyltransferase, cholesterol, corn oil, fatty acids, feed intake, gene expression, genes, growth performance, heat treatment, lipid composition, lipid peroxidation, liver, messenger RNA, metabolism, oxidation, poultry, swine feeding, tallow, triacylglycerols, vegetable oil
To evaluate the effect of feeding thermally oxidized vegetable oils and animal fats on growth performance, liver gene expression, and liver and serum fatty acid and cholesterol concentration in young pigs, 102 barrows (6.67 ± 0.03 kg BW) were divided into 3 groups and randomly assigned to dietary treatments in a 4 × 3 factorial arrangement. The main factors were lipid source (n = 4; corn oil [CN], canola oil [CA], poultry fat [PF], and tallow [TL]) and lipid peroxidation level (n = 3; original lipids [OL], slow oxidation [SO] through heating at 95°C for 72 h, or rapid oxidation [RO] through heating at 185°C for 7 h). Pigs were provided ad libitum access to diets in group pens for 28 d followed by controlled feed intake in metabolism crates for 10 d. On d 39, all pigs were euthanized for liver samples to determine liver weight, lipid profile, and gene expression patterns. Lipid oxidation analysis indicated that compared with the OL, SO and RO of lipids had a markedly increased concentrations of primary and secondary peroxidation products, and the increased lipid peroxidation products in CN and CA were greater than those in PF and TL. After a 28-d ad libitum feeding period, pigs fed RO lipids tended to have reduced ADFI (P = 0.09) and ADG (P < 0.05) compared with pigs fed OL, and pigs fed CA had reduced G:F (P < 0.05) compared with pigs fed all other lipids. Pigs fed RO lipids tended to have increased relative liver weight (P = 0.09) compared with pigs fed OL. Liver triglyceride concentration (LTG) in pigs fed OL was greater (P < 0.05) than in pigs fed SO lipids and tended to be greater (P < 0.07) than in pigs fed SO. The reduced LTG were consistent with increased (P < 0.05) mRNA expression of PPARα factor target genes (acyl-CoA oxidase, carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1, and mitochondrial 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutary-CoA synthase) in pigs fed SO and RO lipids compared with pigs fed OL. Pigs fed CN or CA tended to have increased LTG (P = 0.09) compared with pigs fed TL. Liver cholesterol concentration in pigs fed CN was less (P < 0.05) than in pigs fed PF and tended to be less (P = 0.06) than in pigs fed TL, whereas pigs fed CA had a reduced (P < 0.05) liver cholesterol compared with pigs fed PF or TL. In conclusion, feeding thermally oxidized lipids negatively affected growth performance and LTG of young pigs, which was associated with an up regulation of fatty acid catabolism pathways.