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Influence of thermally-oxidized vegetable oils and animal fats on energy and nutrient digestibility in young pigs

P. Liu, B. J. Kerr, C. Chen, T. E. Weber, L. J. Johnston, G. C. Shurson
Journal of animal science 2014 v.92 pp. 2980-2986
barrows, calcium, canola oil, corn oil, diet, digestibility, digestible energy, energy, feed intake, heat treatment, lipid content, lipid peroxidation, lipids, lysine, metabolizable energy, methionine, nitrogen metabolism, oxidation, poultry, swine feeding, tallow, threonine, tryptophan, vegetable oil
A total of 108 barrows (6.67 ± 0.03 kg BW) were assigned to 12 dietary treatments in a 4 × 3 factorial design plus a corn–soybean meal control diet to evaluate the effect of lipid source and peroxidation level on DE, ME, and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of DM, GE, ether extract (EE), N, and C in young pigs. Main effects were lipid source (corn oil [CN], canola oil [CA], poultry fat [PF], and tallow [TL]) and peroxidation level (original lipids [OL], slow oxidation [SO] of lipids heated for 72 h at 95°C, or rapid oxidation [RO] of lipids heated for 7 h at 185°C). Pigs were provided ad libitum access to diets for 28 d followed by an 8-d period of controlled feed intake equivalent to 4% BW daily. Diets were formulated based on the ME content of CA with the standardized ileal digestible Lys, Met, Thr, Trp, total Ca, and available P:ME balanced relative to NRC (1998) recommendations. Lipid peroxidation analysis indicated that compared with the OL, SO and RO had a markedly increased concentrations of lipid peroxidation products, and the increase of peroxidation products in CN and CA were greater than those in PF and TL. Addition of lipids to diets increased (P < 0.05) ATTD of EE and tended to improve (P = 0.06) ATTD of GE compared with pigs fed the control diet. Feeding CN or CA increased (P < 0.05) ATTD of DM, GE, EE, N, and C compared with feeding TL, while feeding PF improved (P < 0.05) ATTD of GE and EE and tended to increase (P = 0.06) ATTD of C compared with TL. Pigs fed CN had increased (P = 0.05) percentage N retention than pigs fed TL. No peroxidation level effect or interaction between lipid source and peroxidation level on DE and ME was observed. Lipid source tended (P = 0.08) to affect DE but not ME values of experimental lipids (P > 0.12). Digestible energy values for CA (8,846, 8,682, and 8,668 kcal/kg) and CN (8,867, 8,648, and 8,725 kcal/kg) were about 450 kcal/kg greater than that of TL (8,316, 8,168, and 8,296 kcal/kg), with PF being intermediate (8,519, 8,274, and 8,511 kcal/kg), for OL, SO, and RO lipids, respectively, respectively. In conclusion, lipid source affected ATTD of dietary DM, GE, EE, N, and C, and N retention and tended to influence the DE value of the lipid but did not significantly affect their ME value. Rapid and slow heating of lipids used in this study increased lipid peroxidation products but had no detectable effects on nutrient and energy digestibility as well as DE and ME values of the various lipids.