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Mechanism of bisphenol AF‐induced progesterone inhibition in human chorionic gonadotrophin‐stimulated mouse Leydig tumor cell line (mLTC‐1) cells

Feng, Yixing, Shi, Jiachen, Jiao, Zhihao, Duan, Hejun, Shao, Bing
Environmental toxicology 2018 v.33 no.6 pp. 670-678
adverse effects, biosynthesis, cell lines, cholesterol, cyclic AMP, cytochrome P-450, dose response, gene expression, genes, human chorionic gonadotropin, humans, inhibitory concentration 50, males, mice, models, neoplasm cells, progesterone, protein content, rats, reproduction, secretion, steroidogenesis, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, testes, toxicity
Bisphenol AF (BPAF) has been shown to inhibit testicular steroidogenesis in male rats. However, the precise mechanisms related to the toxic effects of BPAF on reproduction remain poorly understood. In the present study, a mouse Leydig tumor cell line (mLTC‐1) was used as a model to investigate the mechanism of steroidogenic inhibition and to identify the molecular target of BPAF. Levels of progesterone and the concentration of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) in cells exposed to BPAF were detected, and expression of key genes and proteins in steroid biosynthesis was assessed. The results showed that BPAF exposure decreased human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG)‐stimulated progesterone production in a dose‐dependent manner. The 24‐h IC₅₀ (half maximal inhibitory concentration) value for BPAF regarding progesterone production was 70.2 µM. A dramatic decrease in cellular cAMP concentration was also observed. Furthermore, BPAF exposure inhibited expression of genes and proteins involved in cholesterol transport and progesterone biosynthesis. Conversely, the protein levels of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) were not altered, and those of progesterone were still decreased upon 22R‐hydroxycholesterol treatment of cells exposed to higher doses of BPAF. Together, these data indicate that BPAF exposure inhibits progesterone secretion in hCG‐stimulated mLTC‐1 cells by reducing expression of scavenger receptor class B type I (SR‐B1) and cytochrome P450 (P450scc) due to the adverse effects of cAMP. However, StAR might not be the molecular target in this process.