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In Vitro Bioaccessibility of Colored Carotenoids in Tomato Derivatives as Affected by Ripeness Stage and the Addition of Different Types of Oil

González‐Casado, Sandra, Martín‐Belloso, Olga, Elez‐Martínez, Pedro, Soliva‐Fortuny, Robert
Journal of food science 2018 v.83 no.5 pp. 1404-1411
Helianthus annuus, bioavailability, coconuts, color, fruits, grinding, health promotion, lycopene, olive oil, synergism, tomato puree, tomatoes
The simultaneous effect of tomato ripeness stage (mature green, pink, and red‐ripe), mechanical processing (dicing and grinding), and oil addition (coconut, sunflower, and olive oils) on the amount and bioaccessible fraction of carotenoids were evaluated. Tomato products obtained from fruits at the most advanced ripeness stage exhibited the greatest values of both concentration and bioaccessible fraction of total carotenoids and lycopene. The type of processing also exerted an important influence on carotenoids content, as well as on its bioaccessibility. Thus, despite the concentration of carotenoids in tomato puree significantly decreased (36% to 59%), their bioaccessibility was greater (up to 2.54‐fold increase) than in tomato cubes. Moreover, the addition of oil significantly improved the carotenoid bioaccessibility, especially when olive oil was added, reaching up to 21‐fold increase with respect to samples without oil. The results obtained clearly indicate that carotenoids bioaccessibility of tomato derivatives was strongly influenced by the ripeness stage of the fruit, processing and the addition of oil. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Bioaccessibility of carotenoids is known to be affected by different factors. This study provides useful information about the synergic effect of different factors affecting the amount and the bioaccessible fraction of carotenoids, especially lycopene, in two common tomato derivatives. The findings of this work may contribute to develop tomato derivatives with high content of bioaccessible carotenoids, leading to the enhancement of their health‐promoting properties.