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Infection dynamics of foot-and-mouth disease virus in pigs using two novel simulated-natural inoculation methods

C. Stenfeldt, J.M. Pacheco, L.L. Rodriguez, J. Arzt
Research in veterinary science 2014 v.96 no.2 pp. 396-405
Foot-and-mouth disease virus, RNA, foot-and-mouth disease, inoculation methods, pathogenesis, swine, swine diseases, tonsils, viral antigens, viruses
In order to characterize foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infection dynamics in pigs, two simulated-natural inoculation systems were developed and evaluated. Intra-oropharyngeal (IOP) and intra-nasopharyngeal (INP) inoculation both enabled precise control of dose and timing of inoculation while simulating field exposure conditions.There were substantial differences between outcomes of infections by the two routes. IOP inoculation resulted in consistent and synchronous infection, whereas INP inoculation at similar doses resulted in delayed, or completely absent infection. All pigs that developed clinical infection had detectable levels of FMDV RNA in their oropharynx directly following inoculation. Furthermore, FMDV antigens were localized to the oropharyngeal tonsils suggesting a role in early infection.The utility of IOP inoculation was further demonstrated in a vaccine-challenge experiment. Thus, the novel system of IOP inoculation described herein, offers a valid alternative to traditionally used systems for FMDV inoculation of pigs, applicable for experimental studies of FMDV pathogenesis and vaccinology.