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A partial deletion in non-structural protein 3A can attenuate foot-and-mouth disease virus in cattle

Juan M. Pacheco, Douglas P. Gladue, Lauren G. Holinka, Jonathan Arzt, Elizabeth Bishop, George Smoliga, Steve J. Pauszek, Alexa J. Bracht, Vivian O'Donnell, Ignacio Fernandez-Sainz, Paige Fletcher, Maria E. Piccone, Luis L. Rodriguez, Manuel V. Borca
Virology 2013 v.446 no.1-2 pp. 260-267
Foot-and-mouth disease virus, amino acid deletion, cattle, phenotype, serotypes, viral proteins, virulence, viruses
The role of non-structural protein 3A of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) on the virulence in cattle has received significant attention. Particularly, a characteristic 10–20 amino acid deletion has been implicated as responsible for virus attenuation in cattle: a 10 amino acid deletion in the naturally occurring, porcinophilic FMDV O1 Taiwanese strain, and an approximately 20 amino acid deletion found in egg-adapted derivatives of FMDV serotypes O1 and C3. Previous reports using chimeric viruses linked the presence of these deletions to an attenuated phenotype in cattle although results were not conclusive. We report here the construction of a FMDV O1Campos variant differing exclusively from the highly virulent parental virus in a 20 amino acid deletion between 3A residues 87–106, and its characterization in vitro and in vivo. We describe a direct link between a deletion in the FMDV 3A protein and disease attenuation in cattle.