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Understanding the Mechanisms of Interferon-Induced Protection against Foot-and-Mouth Disease

Diaz-San Segundo, Fayna, Montiel, Nestor, de los Santos, Teresa, Grubman, Marvin J.
ARS USDA Submissions 2014 pp. 1
Foot-and-mouth disease virus, Human adenovirus C, animals, cell-mediated immunity, disease prevention, foot-and-mouth disease, gene induction, genetic vectors, immune response, in vivo studies, interferons, vaccination, viral antigens, viruses
Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infects cloven-hoofed animals and causes a highly contagious disease that rapidly spreads among many susceptible species. Vaccination with an inactivated whole virus antigen in formulation with adjuvant, or with a replication-defective human adenovirus 5 (Ad5) able to deliver FMDV empty capsids have proven to be effective strategies to control disease in 7 days. However, in the event of an FMD outbreak, the induction of rapid protection prior to the development of vaccine-stimulated adaptive immunity is necessary to limit the spread of this disease that can cause economically devastating consequences. Similarly to many other viruses, FMDV is highly sensitive to the action of interferons (IFNs), the first line of defense against viral infection. Furthermore, IFN delivered by an Ad5 vector can protect animals from FMDV infection as early as 1 day post-administration. Initial studies in vivo have provided valuable information about the effect of IFN treatment on host gene induction and cell mediated immunity during FMDV infection. A detailed and comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms involved in IFN-induced protection should only contribute to the development of novel and improved FMD control strategies.