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Characterization of a novel thermostable and xylose-tolerant GH 39 β-xylosidase from Dictyoglomus thermophilum

Li, Qi, Wu, Tao, Qi, Zhipeng, Zhao, Linguo, Pei, Jianjun, Tang, Feng
BMC biotechnology 2018 v.18 no.1 pp. 29
Dictyoglomus thermophilum, amino acids, anti-aging properties, astragalosides, catalytic activity, fuels, genes, heat tolerance, moieties, molecular weight, pH, pharmaceutical industry, phylogeny, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, temperature, thermal stability, thermostable enzymes, xylan 1,4-beta-xylosidase, xylooligosaccharides, xylose
BACKGROUND: β-D-xylosidase is a vital exoglycosidase with the ability to hydrolyze xylooligosaccharides to xylose and to biotransform some saponins by cleaving outer β-xylose. β-D-xylosidase is widely used as one of the xylanolytic enzymes in a diverse range of applications, such as fuel, food and the pharmaceutical industry; therefore, more and more studies have focused on the thermostable and xylose-tolerant β-D-xylosidases. RESULTS: A thermostable β-xylosidase gene (xln-DT) of 1509 bp was cloned from Dictyoglomus thermophilum and expressed in E.coli BL21. According to the amino acid and phylogeny analyses, the β-xylosidase Xln-DT is a novel β-xylosidase of the GH family 39. The recombinant β-xylosidase was purified, showing unique bands on SDS-PAGE, and had a protein molecular weight of 58.7 kDa. The β-xylosidase Xln-DT showed an optimal activity at pH 6.0 and 75 °C, with p-nitrophenyl-β-D-xylopyranoside (pNPX) as a substrate. Xln-DT displayed stability over a pH range of 4.0-7.5 for 24 h and displayed thermotolerance below 85 °C. The values of the kinetic parameters K ₘ and V ₘₐₓ for pNPX were 1.66 mM and 78.46 U/mg, respectively. In particular, Xln-DT displayed high tolerance to xylose, with 60% activity in the presence of 3 M xylose. Xln-DT showed significant effects on the hydrolyzation of xylobiose. After 3 h, all the xylobiose tested was degraded into xylose. Moreover, β-xylosidase Xln-DT had a high selectivity for cleaving the outer xylose moieties of natural saponins, such as notoginsenoside R1 and astragaloside IV, which produced the ginsenoside Rg1 with stronger anti-fatigue activity and produced cycloastragenol with stronger anti-aging activity, respectively. CONCLUSION: This study provides a novel GH 39 β-xylosidase displaying extraordinary properties of highly catalytic activity at temperatures above 75 °C, remarkable hydrolyzing activity of xylooligosaccharides and rare saponins producing ability in the pharmaceutical and commercial industries.