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Effectiveness of groundwater governance structures and institutions in Tanzania
- Gudaga, J.L., Kabote, S.J., Tarimo, A.K. P. R., Mosha, D.B., Kashaigili, J.J.
- Applied water science 2018 v.8 no.2 pp. 77
- committees, descriptive statistics, females, governance, groundwater, males, surveys, villages, water supply, women, Tanzania
- This paper examines effectiveness of groundwater governance structures and institutions in Mbarali District, Mbeya Region. The paper adopts exploratory sequential research design to collect quantitative and qualitative data. A random sample of 90 groundwater users with 50% women was involved in the survey. Descriptive statistics, Kruskal–Wallis H test and Mann–Whitney U test were used to compare the differences in responses between groups, while qualitative data were subjected to content analysis. The results show that the Village Councils and Community Water Supply Organizations (COWSOs) were effective in governing groundwater. The results also show statistical significant difference on the overall extent of effectiveness of the Village Councils in governing groundwater between villages (P = 0.0001), yet there was no significant difference (P > 0.05) between male and female responses on the effectiveness of Village Councils, village water committees and COWSOs. The Mann–Whitney U test showed statistical significant difference between male and female responses on effectiveness of formal and informal institutions (P = 0.0001), such that informal institutions were effective relative to formal institutions. The Kruskal–Wallis H test also showed statistical significant difference (P ≤ 0.05) on the extent of effectiveness of formal institutions, norms and values between low, medium and high categories. The paper concludes that COWSOs were more effective in governing groundwater than other groundwater governance structures. Similarly, norms and values were more effective than formal institutions. The paper recommends sensitization and awareness creation on formal institutions so that they can influence water users’ behaviour to govern groundwater.