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Identification of the molecular genetic basis of the low palmitic acid seed oil trait in soybean mutant line RG3 and association analysis of molecular markers with elevated seed stearic acid and reduced seed palmitic acid

Jason D. Gillman, Ashley Tetlow, Katherine Hagely, Jeffrey G. Boersma, Andrea Cardinal, Istvan Rajcan, Kristin Bilyeu
Molecular breeding 2014 v.34 pp. 447-455
fatty acid composition, feedstocks, genetic improvement, genetic markers, inbred lines, loci, mutants, mutation, null alleles, palmitic acid, soybean oil, soybeans, stearic acid, vegetable oil
The fatty acid composition of vegetable oil is becoming increasingly critical for the ultimate functionality and utilization in foods and industrial products. Partial chemical hydrogenation of soybean oil increases oxidative stability and shelf life but also results in the introduction of trans fats as an unavoidable byproduct. Due to mandatory labeling of consumer products containing trans fats, conventional soybean oil has lost the ability to deliver the most appropriate economical functionality and oxidative stability, particularly for baking applications. Genetic improvement of the fatty acid profile of soybean oil is one method to meet requirements for oil feedstocks. In this report, we characterize three mutant genetic loci controlling the saturated fatty acid content of soybean oil: two genes additively reduce palmitic acid content (fap1 and fap3-ug), and one gene independently elevates stearic acid content (fas). We identified a new null allele of fap3-ug/GmFATB1A (derived from line ELLP2), as well as a splicing defect mutation in a beta-ketoacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] synthase III (KASIII) candidate gene located in the region mapped to fap1, derived originally from EMS mutant line C1726 (Cardinal et al. 2013). Molecular marker assays have been developed to track these causative mutations in a recombinant inbred line population segregating for fap1, fap3-ug, and a novel fas allele. We also report evidence for an additional unidentified minor gene enhancing the stearic acid content in lines derived from RG7.