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Impact of Vitamin K1 on Tissue Vitamin K Levels, Immunity, and Survival of Greenlip Abalone, Haliotis laevigata, at Summer Water Temperatures

Thomson, Nicole L., Howarth, Gordon S., Currie, Krishna-Lee, Duong, Duong N., Stone, David A. J.
Journal of shellfish research 2018 v.37 no.1 pp. 181-190
Haliotis laevigata, abalone, blood serum, catalase, diet, dissolved oxygen, enzyme activity, farms, hemocytes, immune response, immune system, mash, microbial load, mortality, muscle tissues, muscles, nutritional intervention, phagocytosis, phylloquinone, summer, water temperature, South Australia
Summer mortality impacts the productivity of greenlip abalone, Haliotis laevigata, on land-based farms in South Australia. It is associated with high water temperature (greater than 23°C), low dissolved oxygen levels, increased bacterial loads, and immune system suppression during summer months. This study aimed to alleviate mortality rates of greenlip abalone by dietary intervention using vitamin K₁ to support the innate immune system and oxidative status. Dietary vitamin K₁ at 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, and 5.0 mg kg⁻¹ was added to a commercially formulated diet mash. An additional diet containing 0.5 mg kg⁻¹ of K₃ was also used for comparison. Diets were fed to 3-y-old abalone (71.51 g; 79.91 mm) at 22 and 25°C water temperatures for 39 days. No mortalities were observed at 22°C; however, high mortalities were observed in all dietary treatments at the water temperature of 25°C. Compared with the negative control diet (0.0 mg additional inclusion ofK₁ or K₃ kg⁻¹) at 25°C, the inclusion of vitaminK₁ orK₃ did not improve survival of greenlip abalone (P > 0.05). VitaminK₁ inclusion level resulted in significant increases in vitamin K₁ concentration of visceral organ and muscle tissues (P < 0.05). Steady-state levels of vitamin K₁ were not reached. Steady-state levels of K₂-MK-4 in visceral organ and muscle were reached when analyzed levels of dietary vitamin K₁ reached 0.02 mg kg⁻¹. This was also true for K₂-MK-7, but in the visceral organ only. Vitamin K₁ inclusion level did not significantly affect total hemocyte count, phagocytic activity, or phagocytic index (P > 0.05). Increasing water temperature to 25°C resulted in significant increases in serum catalase activity (22 < 25°C) and vitaminK₁ concentration in muscle tissue (22 < 25°C). Comparison of vitamin K₁ or K₃ at 0.5 mg kg⁻¹ resulted in significant changes to serum catalase activity (K₁ > K₃) and vitamin K₁ concentration in visceral organ (K₁ >K₃). In conclusion, vitaminK₁ at the doses tested, resulted in significant increases in vitaminK₁ concentration in visceral organ and muscle tissues, but failed to improve immune function, oxidative status, or survival of greenlip abalone at high summer water temperatures.