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Plant Oils to Control Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky1

Flores-Dávila, Mariano, Aguirre-Uribe, Luis Alberto, Cerna-Chávez, Ernesto, Quiñones-Dena, Héctor, Ochoa-Fuentes, Yisa María, Frías-Treviño, Gustavo Alberto, Hernández-Juárez, Agustín, Chacón-Hernández, Julio Cesar
The Southwestern entomologist 2017 v.42 no.3 pp. 725-730
Allium sativum, Capsicum annuum, Cinnamomum verum, Mentha piperita, Piper nigrum, Rosmarinus officinalis, Ruta graveolens, Sitophilus zeamais, Syzygium aromaticum, Thymus vulgaris, Zea mays, biodegradability, black pepper, cinnamon, ecosystems, garlic, hot peppers, humans, insect pests, insecticides, lethal concentration 50, mint, plant fats and oils, rosemary, storage pests, stored grain, thyme
The maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky, is the most important pest of stored maize, Zea mays L. The pest causes estimated losses of 5–10% worldwide. Oil extracts from plants show promise to control maize weevil with important advantages over conventional insecticide, such as non-toxicity to humans, biodegradability, and ecosystem safety. The objective of this research on maize weevils in laboratory conditions was to determine the insecticidal effect of 10 plant oils: garlic, Allium sativum L.; cinnamon, Cinnamomum verum J.; hot pepper, Capsicum annuum L.; clove, Syzygium aromaticum L.; mint, Mentha piperita L.; black pepper, Piper nigrum L.; rosemary, Rosmarinus officinalis L.; rue, Ruta graveolens L.; thyme, Thymus vulgaris L. and allyl (commercial product). Residual film was used to test plant oils at five concentrations: 9,000, 7,000, 5,000, 3,000, and 1,000 ppm. The number of weevils killed was counted at 72 hours, and treatment means were compared using a Tukey multiple separation test. PC-Probit analysis determined LC₅₀ and LC₉₅. Most weevils, 52.47 and 60.38%, were killed by garlic and black pepper oils, respectively; at 9,000 ppm; fewer than 50% were killed with the other plant oils. Use of garlic and black pepper oil might be an alternative method to manage this insect pest in stored maize.