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Future Trends and Mitigation Options for Energy Consumption and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in a Developing Country of the Middle East Region: a Case Study of Lebanon’s Road Transport Sector

Haddad, MarcGeorges, Mansour, CharbelJoseph, Afif, Charbel
Environmental modeling and assessment 2018 v.23 no.3 pp. 263-276
carbon dioxide, case studies, developing countries, energy, fossil fuels, greenhouse gas emissions, market share, road transportation, vehicles (equipment), Lebanon, Middle East
The road transport system in Lebanon is one of the most unsustainable in the Middle East region due to, in large part, the absence of a national transportation strategy. This study proposes mitigation measures based on Lebanon’s commitments for reducing fossil fuel use and CO₂ emissions from road transport by increasing the share of fuel-efficient and hybrid electric vehicles and increasing the utilization of the existing bus service. Results show that increasing the market share of fuel-efficient vehicles to 35% in 2040 stabilizes energy use and emissions. The addition of hybrid vehicles to the first strategy, with a target of 10% market share by 2040, leads to 11% additional savings. Increasing the share of bus passenger kilometers traveled to 45% in 2040 leads to a reversal of adverse impacts. A combined strategy of all three measures leads to 63% reductions in 2040 compared to 2010, which is even superior to their cumulative savings.