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Future Trends and Mitigation Options for Energy Consumption and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in a Developing Country of the Middle East Region: a Case Study of Lebanon’s Road Transport Sector
- Haddad, MarcGeorges, Mansour, CharbelJoseph, Afif, Charbel
- Environmental modeling and assessment 2018 v.23 no.3 pp. 263-276
- carbon dioxide, case studies, developing countries, energy, fossil fuels, greenhouse gas emissions, market share, road transportation, vehicles (equipment), Lebanon, Middle East
- The road transport system in Lebanon is one of the most unsustainable in the Middle East region due to, in large part, the absence of a national transportation strategy. This study proposes mitigation measures based on Lebanon’s commitments for reducing fossil fuel use and CO₂ emissions from road transport by increasing the share of fuel-efficient and hybrid electric vehicles and increasing the utilization of the existing bus service. Results show that increasing the market share of fuel-efficient vehicles to 35% in 2040 stabilizes energy use and emissions. The addition of hybrid vehicles to the first strategy, with a target of 10% market share by 2040, leads to 11% additional savings. Increasing the share of bus passenger kilometers traveled to 45% in 2040 leads to a reversal of adverse impacts. A combined strategy of all three measures leads to 63% reductions in 2040 compared to 2010, which is even superior to their cumulative savings.