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Ecotoxicological impact of arsenic on earthworms and collembolans as affected by attributes of a highly weathered tropical soil

Author:
Alves, PauloRoger Lopes, da Silva, EvandroBarbosa, Cardoso, ElkeJurandy Bran Nogueira, Alleoni, LuísReynaldo Ferracciú
Source:
Environmental science and pollution research international 2018 v.25 no.14 pp. 13217-13225
ISSN:
0944-1344
Subject:
Eisenia andrei, Folsomia candida, Oxisols, aluminum oxide, arsenic, bioaccumulation, chemical analysis, earthworms, ecotoxicology, heavy metals, humid zones, hydroxides, iron oxides, median effective concentration, reproduction, risk, silicate minerals, sodium arsenate, temperate zones, toxicity, tropical soils, weight loss, Brazil
Abstract:
High levels of heavy metals in soils may impose serious impacts on terrestrial organisms. In Brazil, the prevention values for evaluating the ecological risk of these elements are based only on soil chemical analyses and/or on data from ecotoxicological assays performed in soils of temperate regions. However, the attributes of the Brazilian highly-weathered tropical soils can influence the availability of heavy metals for soil fauna, resulting in different toxic values. To provide more accurate ecotoxicological risk values for arsenic (As) in tropical soils, we assessed the impacts of sodium arsenate (Na₂HAsO₄·7H₂O) on the reproduction of earthworms (Eisenia andrei) and collembolans (Folsomia candida), as well as on As bioaccumulation and growth (weight loss) of E. andrei in a tropical artificial soil (TAS) and in an Oxisol. In TAS, As doses reduced the reproduction of the species and promoted weight loss of earthworms. On the other hand, the reproductions of the species as well as the earthworm growth were not altered by As in the Oxisol. The effective concentrations that reduce the reproduction of E. andrei and F. candida by 50 % (EC₅₀) obtained in TAS (22.7 and 26.1 mg of As kg⁻¹ of dry soil, respectively) were lower than those in the Oxisol (>135 mg kg⁻¹, for both species). Although there was As bioaccumulation in earthworms in both soils, the internal concentrations in the earthworms were much higher in the oligochaetes exposed to arsenic in TAS. All these differences were attributed to the higher availability of As in the TAS, compared to the Oxisol, which increased the exposure of the species to the metal. The lower availability in the Oxisol was related to higher contents of type 1:1 silicate minerals and Fe and Al oxides and hydroxides, which strongly bind to As. These results highlight the importance of using tropical soils of humid regions to derive the Brazilian ecological risk prevention values for heavy metals, since the toxicity values are specific for these soils.
Agid:
5948360