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Change of heavy metal speciation, mobility, bioavailability, and ecological risk during potassium ferrate treatment of waste-activated sludge
- Yu, Ming, Zhang, Jian, Tian, Yu
- Environmental science and pollution research international 2018 v.25 no.14 pp. 13569-13578
- bioavailability, cadmium, chromium, copper, heavy metals, lead, magnesium, nickel, potassium, risk, sludge, zinc
- The effects of potassium ferrate treatment on the heavy metal concentrations, speciation, mobility, bioavailability, and environmental risk in waste-activated sludge (WAS) at various dosages of potassium ferrate and different treatment times were investigated. Results showed that the total concentrations of all metals (except Cd) were decreased slightly after treatment and the order of metal concentrations in WAS and treated waste-activated sludge (TWAS) was Mg > Zn > Cu > Cr > Pb > Ni > Cd. Most heavy metals in WAS remained in TWAS after potassium ferrate treatment with metal residual rates over 67.8% in TWAS. The distribution of metal speciation in WAS was affected by potassium ferrate treatment. The bioavailability and the mobility of heavy metals (except Mg) in TWAS were mitigated, compared to those in WAS. Meanwhile, the environmental risk of heavy metals (except Pb and Cu) was alleviated after potassium ferrate treatment.