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Whole genome analysis of six organophosphate-degrading rhizobacteria reveals putative agrochemical degradation enzymes with broad substrate specificity

Iyer, Rupa, Iken, Brian, Damania, Ashish, Krieger, Jerry
Environmental science and pollution research international 2018 v.25 no.14 pp. 13660-13675
Achromobacter xylosoxidans, Agrobacterium radiobacter, National Center for Biotechnology Information, Ochrobactrum anthropi, Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas stutzeri, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, agricultural soils, agrochemicals, beta-lactamase, databases, farms, genes, glyphosate, hydrolysis, proteins, rhizosphere, rhizosphere bacteria, sequence analysis, substrate specificity
Six organophosphate-degrading bacterial strains collected from farm and ranch soil rhizospheres across the Houston-metropolitan area were identified as strains of Pseudomonas putida (CBF10-2), Pseudomonas stutzeri (ODKF13), Ochrobactrum anthropi (FRAF13), Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (CBF10-1), Achromobacter xylosoxidans (ADAF13), and Rhizobium radiobacter (GHKF11). Whole genome sequencing data was assessed for relevant genes, proteins, and pathways involved in the breakdown of agrochemicals. For comparative purposes, this analysis was expanded to also include data from deposited strains in the National Center for Biotechnology Information’s (NCBI) database. This study revealed Zn-dependent metallo-β-lactamase (MBL)-fold proteins similar to OPHC2 first identified in P. pseudoalcaligenes as the likely agents of organophosphate (OP) hydrolysis in A. xylosoxidans ADAF13, S. maltophilia CBF10-1, O. anthropi FRAF13, and R. radiobacter GHKF11. A search of similar proteins within NCBI identified over 200 hits for bacterial genera and species with a similar OPHC2 domain. Taken together, we conclude from this data that intrinsic low-level OP hydrolytic activity is likely prevalent across the rhizosphere stemming from widespread OPHC2-like metalloenzymes. In addition, P. stutzeri ODKF13, P. putida CBF10-2, O. anthropi FRAF13, and R. radiobacter GHKF11 were found to harbor glycine oxidase (GO) enzymes that putatively possess low-level activity against the herbicide glyphosate. These bacterial GOs are reported to catalyze the degradation of glyphosate to α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) and suggest a possible link to AMPA that can be found in glyphosate-contaminated agricultural soil. The presence of aromatic degradation proteins were also detected in five of six study strains, but are attributed primarily to components of the widely distributed β-ketoadipate pathway found in many soil bacteria.