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Critical Evaluation of Crispy and Crunchy Textures: A Review
- Tunick, Michael H., Onwulata, Charles I., Thomas, Audrey E., Phillips, John G., Mukhopadhyay, Sudarsan, Sheen, Shiowshuh, Liu, Cheng-Kung, Latona, Nicholas, Pimentel, Mariana R., Cooke, Peter H.
- International Journal of Food Properties 2013 v.16 no.5 pp. 949
- acoustics, foods, hardness, lipid content, mastication, researchers, sensory evaluation, water content
- Crispness and crunchiness are important factors in the enjoyment of many foods, but they are defined differently among dictionaries, consumers, and researchers. Sensory, mechanical, and acoustic methods have been used to provide data on crispness and crunchiness. Sensory measurements include biting force and sound intensity. Mechanical techniques resemble mastication and include flex, shear, and compression. Acoustical techniques measure frequency, intensity, and number of sound events. Water and oil content contribute to crispness and crunchiness, which also have temporal aspects. Information in the literature is compared in this article to develop definitions of crispness and crunchiness.