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In situ toxicity and ecological risk assessment of agro-pesticide runoff in the Madre de Dios River in Costa Rica
- Echeverría-Sáenz, Silvia, Mena, Freylan, Arias-Andrés, María, Vargas, Seiling, Ruepert, Clemens, Van den Brink, PaulJ., Castillo, LuisaE., Gunnarsson, JonasS.
- Environmental science and pollution research international 2018 v.25 no.14 pp. 13270-13282
- Daphnia magna, acute toxicity, bananas, basins, biodiversity, biomarkers, coastal water, community structure, environmental assessment, fish, habitat destruction, macroinvertebrates, pesticides, pineapples, rice, risk assessment, rivers, runoff, streams, watersheds, Caribbean Sea, Costa Rica
- The River Madre de Dios (RMD) and its lagoon is a biodiversity rich watershed formed by a system of streams, rivers, channels, and a coastal lagoon communicating with the Caribbean Sea. This basin sustains a large area of agricultural activity (mostly banana, rice, and pineapple) with intensive use of pesticides, continually detected in water samples. We investigated in situ the toxicological effects caused by pesticide runoff from agriculture and the relation of pesticide concentrations with different biological organization levels: early responses in fish biomarkers (sub-organismal), acute toxicity to Daphnia magna (organismal), and aquatic macroinvertebrate community structure. The evaluation was carried out between October 2011 and November 2012 at five sites along the RMD influenced by agricultural discharges and a reference site in a stream outside the RMD that receives less pesticides. Acute toxicity to D. magna was observed only once in a sample from the RMD (Caño Azul); the index of biomarker responses in fish exposed in situ was higher than controls at the same site and at the RMD-Freeman. However, only macroinvertebrates were statistically related to the presence of pesticides, combined with both physical-chemical parameters and habitat degradation. All three groups of variables determined the distribution of macroinvertebrate taxa through the study sites.