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Antimicrobial, cytotoxic and antioxidative evaluation of natural deep eutectic solvents
- Radošević, Kristina, Čanak, Iva, Panić, Manuela, Markov, Ksenija, Bubalo, MarinaCvjetko, Frece, Jadranka, Srček, VišnjaGaurina, Redovniković, IvanaRadojčić
- Environmental science and pollution research international 2018 v.25 no.14 pp. 14188-14196
- Candida albicans, Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella Typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, acids, alcohols, amides, antimicrobial properties, bacteria, biodegradability, chlorides, choline, cytotoxicity, human cell lines, hydrogen bonding, industrial applications, oxygen radical absorbance capacity, solvents, sugars, yeasts
- Natural deep eutectic solvents (NADES) are a new generation of green solvents. They are mixtures of two or three compounds such as choline chloride as a cationic salt and alcohols, acids, amides, amines or sugars as hydrogen-bond donors. Although the majority of NADES’ components are of natural origin and therefore NADES are often presumed to be non-toxic, the evaluation of their toxicity and biodegradability must accompany the research on their synthesis and application. Therefore, the aim of this work was to investigate the effect of ten synthesised NADES towards bacteria (i.e., Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Salmonella typhimurium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus), yeast (i.e., Candida albicans) and human cell lines (i.e., HeLa, MCF-7 and HEK293T). In addition, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) method was used to determine the antioxidative activity of the tested NADES. Differences in toxicity response between microorganisms and cell lines were observed, and only NADES that contained organic acid showed toxicity towards the test systems. Furthermore, the NADES containing compounds that possess antioxidative activity also showed antioxidative activity. However, research whose primary purpose is the synthesis and application of NADES must be followed by an evaluation of their biological properties (e.g., antimicrobial activity, toxicity towards animal cells and antioxidative or other biological activity) to find the solvent with the best profile for wider industrial applications.