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Enrichment and Purification of Casein Glycomacropeptide from Whey Protein Isolate Using Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Processing and Membrane Ultrafiltration

Bonnaillie, Laetitia M., Qi, Phoebe, Wickham, Edward, Tomasula, Peggy M.
Foods 2014 v.3 no.1 pp. 94
acid deposition, beta-lactoglobulin, beverages, carbon dioxide, casein, functional properties, ingredients, lactalbumin, pH, supercritical fluid extraction, temperature, ultrafiltration, whey, whey protein concentrate, whey protein isolate
Whey protein concentrates (WPC) and isolates (WPI), comprised mainly of β-lactoglobulin (β-LG), α-lactalbumin (α-LA) and casein glycomacropeptide (GMP), are added to foods to boost nutritional and functional properties. Supercritical carbon dioxide (SCO₂) has been shown to effectively fractionate WPC and WPI to obtain enriched fractions of α-LA and β-LG, thus creating new whey ingredients that exploit the properties of the individual component proteins. In this study, we used SCO₂ to further fractionate WPI via acid precipitation of α-LA, β-LG and the minor whey proteins to obtain GMP-enriched solutions. The process was optimized and α-LA precipitation maximized at low pH and a temperature (T) ≥65 °C, where β-LG with 84% purity and GMP with 58% purity were obtained, after ultrafiltration and diafiltration to separate β-LG from the GMP solution. At 70 °C, β-LG also precipitated with α-LA, leaving a GMP-rich solution with up to 94% purity after ultrafiltration. The different protein fractions produced with the SCO₂ process will permit the design of new foods and beverages to target specific nutritional needs.