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11. The Classification of Spiders.

Bristowe, W. S.
Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1938 v.B108 no.2 pp. 285-345
Araneae, Balantidium, Canis, Cercocebus, Cercopithecus, Choloepus didactylus, Cricetomys, Eimeria, Entamoeba histolytica, Erythrocebus, Escherichia coli, Felis, Giardia, Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris, Hylobates lar, Isospora, Meles meles, Nyctereutes, Pan troglodytes, Papio papio, Pecari tajacu, Procyon lotor, Sciurus vulgaris, Spermophilus, Sus scrofa, Trichomonas, animal morphology, carnivores, feces, hosts, intestines, new variety, parasites, rodents, sloths, swine, zoos
1 107 mammals, belonging to 77 species, were examined for intestinal Protozoa. With a few exceptions, the animals were housed in the sanatorium of the Zoological Gardens at Regent's Park and were in solitary confinement. Observations were based on films of fresh faeces, supplemented in certain cases by fixed and stained smears. 2 Cysts of amoebae were the commonest organisms noted. 1 Of the thirty primates examined, fourteen were passing cysts morphologically indistinguishable from those of Entamoeba histolytica. So far as we know, the following have not been recorded before as hosts of this parasite:–Hylobates lar, H. lar leuciscus, Papio papio, Cercocebus sethiops, C. fuliginosus, Cercopithecus mona, C. ascanius schmidti, and Erythrocebus patas. 2 Cysts looking exactly like those of Entamoeba coli were found in the faeces of fifteen primates. E. coli has not been recorded before from Hylobates lar, Papio papio, Cercocebus sethiops, Cercopithecus mona, and Erythrocebus patas. 3 “Entamoeba muris” was found in three of the twelve rodents examined, i. e., Cricetomys gambianus, Lophiomys imhausi, and Hydrochoerus capybara. These are new records for this entamoeba. 4 Cysts of an entamoeba occurred in the faeces of two sloths, Choloepus didactylus. A short description of these is given. The organism may be identical with Entamoeba bradypi Hegner and Schumaker. 5 Four out of five gnus (Connocheetes taurinus) were passing entamcebic cysts. These appeared so closely similar to cysts of Entamoeba bovis that we do not propose giving them a new specific name. 6 Eight wild “pigs” were examined. All but a Red River‐hog (Potamochcerus penicillatus) and a Peccary (Pecari tajacu) were passing cysts and amoebae which we consider referable to Entamoeba polecki. The infected animals belonged to the following species:–Hylochcerus meinertzhageni, Potamochcerus koiropotamus, Sus cris‐tatus, and S. scrofa. Entamoeba polecki has hitherto been recorded only from the domestic pig. The resemblance of its cysts to those of E. histolytica is striking, and has been the subject of some discussion in recent years. We give our reasons for doubting the identity of the two species. 7 Three Aard‐Varks (Orycteropus afer) were passing amoebic cysts, on which we give some brief notes. 8 Cysts of Iodamceba were observed in the faeces of six primates: Papio papio, Cercocebus sethiops, and Cercopithecus ascanius schmidti are recorded as hosts for the first time. The species is probably identical with I. butschlii from Man. We also found Iodamceba (cysts) in the faeces of Hylochcerus meinertzhageni: Iodamoeba is well known from the domestic pig, but we have found no previous record of it from wild swine. 9 Endolimax nana occurred in eleven of the primates examined. An organism indistinguishable from it morphologically was also noted in faeces of two rodents–Hydrochoerus capybara and Ccendou prehensilis. 3 Flagellates were not observed frequently. 1 “Chilomastix mesnili” (flagellates and cysts) were seen in faeces of three out of five chimpanzees. Chilomastix (possibly C. bettencourti) occurred in two rodents–Hydrochoerus capybara and Citellus richardsonii. 2 Trichomonas (possibly T. cavise) was found in Hydrochcerus capybara. A Giant Forest‐hog (Hylochcsrus meinertzhageni) and a Peccary (Pecari tajacu) both harboured Trichomonas: this may be identical with T. suis from the domestic pig. A trichomonad from Canis pallipes is possibly T. felis. 3 Oiardia cysts were seen in faeces of two carnivores, Nyctereutes procyonides and Meles meles canescens, and may possibly be G. canis. We also saw Giardia cysts in faeces of two rodents (Citillus richardsonii and Lophiomys imhausi). We add the following primates to the list of those known to harbour what is probably G. intestinalis, the species from Man:–Hylobates concolor, H. lar leuciscus, Cercopithccus mona, and Pithecia monachus. 4 The only ciliates observed were very scanty cysts of Balantidium (species undeterimed) from Sus scrofa and from Cercopithccus sethiops. 5 One rodent (Sciurus vulgaris) showed coccidia in the faeces, probably Eimeria sciurorum. Coccidia were also observed in faeces of four carnivores: Nyctereutes procyonides, Canis occidentalis, Felis serval, and Procyon lotor. Isospora rivolta has previously been recorded from a subspecies of Nyctereutes procyonides. Possibly the Isospora from Canis occidentalis is /. bigemina, and that from the serval a new variety of I. felis.