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Effects of tramadol on the minimum anesthetic concentration of isoflurane in white-eyed parakeets (psittacara leucophthalmus)
- Escobar, André, da Rocha, Rozana Wendler, Midon, Monica, de Almeida, Ricardo Miyasaka, Filho, Darcio Zangirolami, Werther, Karin
- Journal of zoo and wildlife medicine 2017 v.48 no.2 pp. 380-387
- adults, intramuscular injection, isoflurane, oxygen, parakeets, t-test
- The aim of this study was to determine the minimum anesthetic concentration (MAC) of isoflurane, and to investigate if tramadol changes the isoflurane MAC in white-eyed parakeets (Psittacara leucophthalmus). Ten adult birds weighing 157 ± 9 g were anesthetized with isoflurane in oxygen under mechanical ventilation. Isoflurane concentration for the first bird was adjusted to 2.2%, and after 15 min an electrical stimulus was applied in the thigh area to observe the response (movement or nonmovement). Isoflurane concentration for the subsequent bird was increased by 10% if the previous bird moved, or decreased by 10% if the previous bird did not move. This procedure was performed serially until at least four sequential crossover events were detected. A crossover event was defined as a sequence of two birds with different responses (positive or negative) to the electrical stimulus. Isoflurane MAC was calculated as the mean isoflurane concentration value at the crossover events. After 1 wk, the same birds were reanesthetized with isoflurane and MAC was determined at 15 and 30 min after intramuscular administration of 10 mg/kg of tramadol using the same method. A paired t-test (P < 0.05%) was used to detect significant differences for MAC between treatments. Isoflurane MAC in this population of white-eyed parakeets was 2.47 ± 0.09%. Isoflurane MAC values 15 and 30 min after tramadol administration were indistinguishable from each other (pooled value was 2.50 ± 0.18%); they were also indistinguishable from isoflurane MAC without tramadol. The isoflurane MAC value in white-eyed parakeets is higher than reported for other bird species. Tramadol (10 mg/kg, i.m.) does not change isoflurane MAC in these birds.