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Urolithiasis in a group of visayan warty pigs (sus cebifrons negrinus)

Chatterton, James, Unwin, Steve, Lopez,, Javier, Chantrey, Julian
Journal of zoo and wildlife medicine 2017 v.48 no.3 pp. 842-850
Sus, acidification, adults, alfalfa hay, bladder calculi, calcium, calcium carbonate, diet, females, males, swine
Four cases of obstructive urolithiasis occurred in male Visayan warty pigs (Sus cebifrons negrinus) during a 12-mo period. One animal died, two were euthanized, and one was treated successfully with a tube cystotomy procedure and a subsequent urinary acidification diet. Uroliths from two cases of urethral obstruction were analyzed and confirmed as calcium carbonate. A fifth nonobstructive case was suspected in an adult female in which calcium carbonate crystalluria was diagnosed, and that case was resolved with medical management. Possible causes of these uroliths included reduced water intake, increased calcium in the diet through use of lucerne hay, and concurrent urinary tract infections. Changes to the diet and access to water were correlated with cessation of further cases, and no recurrence has been seen to date. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of calcium carbonate urolithiasis and the first use of a tube cystotomy in a nondomestic pig species.