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Simultaneous Speciation Analysis of Arsenic, Chromium, and Selenium in the Bioaccessible Fraction for Realistic Risk Assessment of Food Safety
- Sadiq, Nausheen W., Beauchemin, Diane
- Analytical chemistry 2017 v.89 no.24 pp. 13299-13304
- arsenic, atomic absorption spectrometry, brown rice, cacodylic acid, chromium, cooking, gastric juice, ion exchange chromatography, leaching, monitoring, saliva, selenium, toxic substances, toxicity
- A simple and fast method was developed for risk assessment of As, Cr, and Se in food, which is demonstrated here using three cooked and uncooked rice samples (basmati as well as organic white and brown rice). The bioaccessible fraction was first determined through online leaching of rice minicolumns (maintained at 37 °C) sequentially with artificial saliva, gastric juice, and intestinal juice while continuously monitoring potentially toxic elements (As, Cr, and Se) by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). Then, a new ion chromatography method with online detection by ICPMS was developed for the simultaneous speciation analysis of As, Cr, and Se in the bioaccessible fraction to determine the portion of these elements that was actually toxic. Using gradient elution, four As species [As(III), As(V), monomethylarsonic acid, and dimethylarsinic acid], two Cr species [Cr(III) and Cr(VI)], and two Se species [Se(IV) and Se(VI)] were separated within 12 min. The simultaneous speciation analysis of As, Cr, and Se revealed that the simple act of cooking can convert all of the carcinogenic Cr(VI) to the safer Cr(III).