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Changes in Postfermentation Quality during the Distribution Process of Anchovy (Engraulis japonicus) Fish Sauce
- Joung, Byung Chun, Min, Jin Gi
- Journal of food protection 2018 v.81 no.6 pp. 969-976
- Engraulis japonicus, amino nitrogen, anchovies, bottling, cadaverine, fermentation, fish sauce, free amino acids, histamine, histidine, odors, pH, packaging, putrescine, salt concentration, storage temperature, storage time, total volatile basic nitrogen, tyrosine, umami
- In the present study, we evaluated the changes in quality that can occur during the distribution of nonheated anchovy (Engraulis japonicus) fish sauce after packaging. The pH values of all samples ranged from 5.5 to 5.8, and there were no significant differences (P > 0.05) in pH among the samples during storage regardless of storage temperature or salt concentration. The initial total volatile base nitrogen concentration in all samples after bottling was 115 to 121 mg/100 mL, but this concentration increased gradually with storage time. After 1 year of storage, total volatile base nitrogen concentration had increased to approximately 170% of the initial concentration (166 to 194 mg/100 mL). Amino nitrogen increased slightly during storage but was significantly lower than the increase in amino nitrogen during general anchovy fish sauce fermentation with anchovy flesh. Most of the free amino acids increased slightly during the storage period regardless of storage temperature or salt concentration, but tyrosine and histidine increased and then decreased during the storage period. The histamine concentration of the anchovy fish sauce at a salt concentration of 20% was 43.3 mg/100 mL initially, but after 1 year the histamine concentration was 89.7 mg/100 mL in samples stored at 10°C, 102.6 mg/100 mL in samples stored at 25°C, and 116.8 mg/100 mL in samples stored at 35°C . Changes in putrescine and cadaverine concentrations were similar to those in histamine; concentrations increased about twofold from the initial concentrations after 1 year of storage. However, the rate of increase in putrescine from 4 months after storage was very high, and cadaverine slightly decreased by 12 months of storage. High scores for umami and aroma sensory characteristics were given to samples stored at 10°C, but samples stored 35°C were given high scores for rancid. Despite the overall low scores for aroma and umami for samples stored at 35°C, the quality of the anchovy fish sauce as a fermented food was considered acceptable.