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Soil Carbon and Nitrogen Fractions and Crop Yields Affected by Residue Placement and Crop Types

Jun Wang, Upendra M. Sainju
Plos One 2014 v.9 no.8 pp. 1-11
crop residue management, soil organic carbon, crop yield, Pisum sativum, ammonium nitrogen, peas, soil heterogeneity, nitrate nitrogen, soil microorganisms, Triticum aestivum, mineralization, crop residues, soil quality, fallow, biological activity in soil, soil sampling, pot culture, nitrogen fertilizers, nitrogen, greenhouse experimentation, microbial biomass, organic nitrogen compounds, edaphic factors, spring wheat, crops
High variability in soil properties in the field results in non-response of management practices on soil C and N fractions. We evaluated the effects of crop species (spring wheat [Triticum aestivum L.], pea [Pisum sativum L.], and fallow), N fertilization (0.11 and 0.96 g N pot-1), and residue placement (no residue, surface placement, and incorporation into the soil) on soil C and N fractions in a greenhouse. Soil samples collected from the field were grown with crops in a greenhouse and analyzed for soil organic C (SOC), total N (STN), particulate organic C and N (POC and PON), microbial biomass C and N (MBC and MBN), potential C and N mineralization (PCM and PNM), NH4-N, and NO3-N contents. The 10.1371/journal.pone.0105039lacement under wheat with 0.11 g N pot-1, PNM, MBN, and NO3-N greater in surface residue placement under wheat or fallow with 0.96 g N pot-1, but POC, PON, and NH4-N greater in residue incorporation under wheat with 0.11 to 0.96 g N pot-1 than other treatments. Soil quality responses to short-term management were readily obtained under controlled soil and environmental conditions in the greenhouse.