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Nutrient status of soil and winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in response to long-term farmyard manure application under different climatic and soil physicochemical conditions in the Czech Republic

Tlustoš, Pavel, Hejcman, Michal, Kunzová, Eva, Hlisnikovský, Lukáš, Zámečníková, Hana, Száková, Jiřina
Archiv für Acker- und Pflanzenbau und Bodenkunde 2018 v.64 no.1 pp. 70-83
Cambisols, Phaeozems, Triticum aestivum, animal manures, annuals, aqua regia, calcium, cattle, climatic factors, crop rotation, fertilizer application, fertilizers, field experimentation, growing season, manure spreading, nutrient content, nutrient uptake, nutrients, phosphorus, physicochemical properties, sandy loam soils, soil chemical properties, soil physical properties, straw, sulfur, texture, winter wheat, Czech Republic
Long-term field experiments with annual crop rotation were established in 1955 and 1956 at three locations (Lukavec, Čáslav, Ivanovice) in the Czech Republic, which differ in their climate and soil physicochemical properties. The effect of cattle farmyard manure (FM) and a combination of FM and mineral (NPK) fertilizer application (FMNPK) on nutrient status of soil and the response of winter wheat, and nutrient content of wheat grain and straw were evaluated after ~60 years since the establishment. The results showed higher pseudototal (aqua regia soluble) contents of phosphorus and sulfur from FM and FMNPK application compared with control, whereas the labile and moderatory labile content of individual nutrients (except calcium) varied between treatments. The nutrient content of wheat grain and straw was more significantly (p < 0.05) affected by the location and growing season than by the fertilizers. The substantial changes in wheat nutrient uptake occurred for the weakly acidic loamy Gleyic Phaeozem, whereas the lowest response due to fertilizer application was observed for the acidic Cambisol (sandy loam texture). Even after six decades of FM and FMNPK application, the effectiveness of these treatments was predominantly influenced by the soil and climatic conditions at the individual locations.