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Role of EGCG in Containing the Progression of Lung Tumorigenesis – A Multistage Targeting Approach

Dhatwalia, Sunil Kumar, Kumar, Manoj, Dhawan, Devinder K.
Nutrition and cancer 2018 v.70 no.3 pp. 334-349
Camellia sinensis, antineoplastic agents, antioxidants, apoptosis, carcinogenesis, cell cycle, clinical trials, drug therapy, epigallocatechin gallate, humans, hypoxia-inducible factor 1, in vitro studies, lung neoplasms, lungs, mitogen-activated protein kinase, radiotherapy, signal transduction, vascular endothelial growth factors
Lung cancer is a prominent form among various types of cancers, irrespective of the sex worldwide. Treatment of lung cancer involves the intensive phase of chemotherapy/radiotherapy which is associated with high rate of adverse events. There is a need of safe and reliable treatment/adjunctive therapy to apprehend the cancer by reducing the undesirable outcome of primary therapy. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), which is a potent antioxidant and anticancer compound extracted from the plant camellia sinensis has proved to be a novel agent to control or reduce lung tumorigenesis by affecting the signaling molecules of cell cycle regulation and apoptotic pathways. In vitro studies have revealed that EGCG can contain carcinogenesis by altering the molecules involved in multiple signal transduction pathways like ERK, VEGF, COX2, NEAT, Ras-GTPase, and kinases. The animal studies have also demonstrated effectiveness of EGCG by inhibiting various molecular pathways which include AKT, NFkB, MAPK, Bcl/Bax, DNMT1, and HIF-1α. Various attempts have been made to see the adjunctive role of EGCG in human lung cancer. Phase I/II clinical studies have recommended that EGCG is quite safe and effective in providing protection against cancer. In this review, we will discuss the role of EGCG and its molecular mechanisms in lung carcinogenesis.