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Effects of the Green Tea Polyphenol Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate on Glioma: A Critical Evaluation of the Literature
- Le, Chung T., Leenders, William P. J., Molenaar, Remco J., van Noorden, Cornelis J. F.
- Nutrition and cancer 2018 v.70 no.3 pp. 317-333
- P-glycoproteins, adjuvants, antioxidants, caffeine, cell death, cell lines, cell proliferation, chemokines, cisplatin, encapsulation, epidemiological studies, epigallocatechin gallate, green tea, in vivo studies, insulin-like growth factor I receptor, irradiation, ligands, metabolism, metalloproteinases, neoplasm cells, neoplasms, oxidants, polyphenols, pro-apoptotic proteins, risk, tamoxifen, telomerase
- The review discusses the effects of Epigallocatechin-3-gallate Gallate (EGCG) on glioma as a basis for future research on clinical application of EGCG. Epidemiological studies on the effects of green tea or EGCG on the risk of glioma is inconclusive due to the limited number of studies, the inclusion of all tea types in these studies, and the focus on caffeine rather than EGCG. In vivo experiments using EGCG monotherapy are inconclusive. Nevertheless, EGCG induces cell death, prevents cellular proliferation, and limits invasion in multiple glioma cell lines. Furthermore, EGCG enhances the efficacy of anti-glioma therapies, including irradiation, temozolomide, carmustine, cisplatin, tamoxifen, and TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand, but reduces the effect of bortezomib. Pro-drugs, co-treatment, and encapsulation are being investigated to enhance clinical applicability of EGCG. Mechanisms of actions of EGCG have been partly elucidated. EGCG has both anti-oxidant and oxidant properties. EGCG inhibits pro-survival proteins, such as telomerase, survivin, GRP78, PEA15, and P-gp. EGCG inhibits signaling of PDGFR, IGF-1R, and 67LR. EGCG reduces invasiveness of cancer cells by inhibiting the activities of various metalloproteinases, cytokines, and chemokines. Last, EGCG inhibits some NADPH-producing enzymes, thus disturbing redox status and metabolism of glioma cells. In conclusion, EGCG may be a suitable adjuvant to potentiate anti-glioma therapies.