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Multiclass methods for the analysis of antibiotic residues in milk by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry: A review Part A Chemistry, analysis, control, exposure & risk assessment

Rossi, Rosanna, Saluti, Giorgio, Moretti, Simone, Diamanti, Irene, Giusepponi, Danilo, Galarini, Roberta
Food additives & contaminants 2018 v.35 no.2 pp. 241-257
antibiotic residues, antibiotics, cheeses, cows, cream, lactating females, lactation, liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry, mastitis, maximum residue limits, milk, milk quality, perishable foods, proteins, raw materials, therapeutics, veterinary drugs, yogurt
Milk is an important and beneficial food from a nutritional point of view, being an indispensable source of high quality proteins. Furthermore, it is a raw material for many dairy products, such as yoghurt, cheese, cream etc. Before reaching consumers, milk goes through production, processing and circulation. Each step involves potentially unsafe factors, such as chemical contamination that can affect milk quality. Antibiotics are widely used in veterinary medicine for dry cow therapy and mastitis treatment in lactating cows, which can cause the presence of antimicrobial residues in milk. In order to ensure consumers’ safety, milk is analyzed to make sure that the fixed Maximum Residue Limits (MRLs) for antibiotics are not exceeded. Multiclass methods can monitor more drug classes through a single analysis, so they are faster, less time-consuming and cheaper than traditional methods (single-class); this aspect is particularly important for milk, which is a highly perishable food. Nevertheless, multiclass methods for veterinary drug residues in foodstuffs are real analytical challenges. This article reviews the major multiclass methods published for the determination of antibiotic residues in milk by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry, with a special focus on sample preparation approaches.