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Anisamide-Anchored Lyotropic Nano-Liquid Crystalline Particles with AIE Effect: A Smart Optical Beacon for Tumor Imaging and Therapy

Urandur, Sandeep, Banala, Venkatesh Teja, Shukla, Ravi Prakash, Mittapelly, Naresh, Pandey, Gitu, Kalleti, Navodayam, Mitra, Kalyan, Rath, Srikanta Kumar, Trivedi, Ritu, Ramarao, Pratibha, Mishra, Prabhat Ranjan
ACS applied materials & interfaces 2018 v.10 no.15 pp. 12960-12974
antineoplastic activity, breast neoplasms, confocal microscopy, drug therapy, drugs, formononetin, image analysis, in vivo studies, ligands, light scattering, monitoring, nanocarriers, nanoparticles, porous media, scanning electron microscopy, small-angle X-ray scattering
The prospective design of nanocarriers for personalized oncotherapy should be an ensemble of targeting, imaging, and noninvasive therapeutic capabilities. Herein, we report the development of the inverse hexagonal nano-liquid crystalline (NLC) particles that are able to host formononetin (FMN), a phytoestrogen with known anticancer activity, and tetraphenylethene (TPE), an iconic optical beacon with aggregation-induced emission (AIE) signature, simultaneously. Ordered three-dimensional mesoporous internal structure and high-lipid-volume fraction of NLC nanoparticles (NLC NPs) frame the outer compartment for the better settlement of payloads. Embellishment of these nanoparticles by anisamide (AA), a novel sigma receptor targeting ligand using carbodiimide coupling chemistry ensured NLC’s as an outstanding vehicle for possible utility in surveillance of tumor location as well as the FMN delivery through active AIE imaging. The size and structural integrity of nanoparticles were evaluated by quasi-elastic light scattering, cryo field emission scanning electron microscopy small-angle X-ray scattering. The existence of AIE effect in the nanoparticles was evidenced through the photophysical studies that advocate the application of NLC NPs in fluorescence-based bioimaging. Moreover, confocal microscopy illustrated the single living cell imaging ability endowed by the NLC NPs. In vitro and in vivo studies supported the enhanced efficacy of targeted nanoparticles (AA-NLC-TF) in comparison to nontargeted nanoparticles (NLC-TF) and free drug. Apparently, this critically designed multimodal NLC NPs may establish a promising platform for targeted and image-guided chemotherapy for breast cancer.