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The dynamic causal links between CO2 emissions from transport, real GDP, energy use and international tourism

Ben Jebli, Mehdi, Hadhri, Walid
Theinternational journal of sustainable development and world ecology 2018 v.25 no.6 pp. 568-577
carbon dioxide, clean energy, economic development, energy, global warming, greenhouse gas emissions, gross domestic product, international tourism, issues and policy, models
This study examines the dynamic causality relationship between international tourism and carbon dioxide (CO₂) emissions from transport, real gross domestic product and energy use. The vector error correction model and Granger causality test approach have been used to investigate these relationships for the top ten international tourism destinations spanning the period 1995–2013. Results reveal a unidirectional causality running from CO₂ emissions to economic growth without feedback; a bidirectional causality between economic growth and energy use; a bidirectional causality between international tourism and economic growth; and a bidirectional causality between international tourism and energy use. They also suggest that energy use and international tourism both contribute to the decrease of emissions level coming from transport sector, while economic growth leads to the increase of CO₂ emissions. This study can be used in policy recommendations by encouraging countries to use clean energy and to stimulate tourism sector for combating global warming.