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Analytical Determination of Phylloquinone (Vitamin K1) in Olive Oils. Comparison with Other Vegetable Oils

Rébufa, Catherine, Artaud, Jacques
European journal of lipid science and technology 2018 v.120 no.6 pp. e1700527
anticoagulants, antioxidants, avocados, canola, cis-trans isomers, cottonseed, databases, drug therapy, fluorescence, food matrix, lipids, liquid chromatography, men, olive oil, olives, patients, phylloquinone, soybeans, tocopherols, vegetable oil, women, Mediterranean region
Olive oil is mainly consumed in the Mediterranean basin and is an important source of lipids, antioxidants, and vitamins. Vitamin E (tocopherols) and phylloquinone (vitamin K₁), are present in oils. If vitamin E is the subject of numerous studies, it is not the case for phylloquinone. The aim of this work is to uncover the latest advancements on phylloquinone contents in olive and vegetable oils. A bibliometric study, from Google Scholar and Web of Science databases, on the determination of phylloquinone content in vegetable oils made it possible to count a large number of scientific papers related to food matrices but few articles on olive and vegetable oils. The analysis of relevant works allows the comparison of the phylloquinone content of olive oils to the other vegetable oils. The different steps of oil sample preparation before their analysis are reviewed. A compilation of analytical conditions and methods is realized and it is be found that liquid chromatography with post reduction column and fluorescence detection is the technique most appropriate. On the basis of their phylloquinone content, two oil groups are highlighted; olive oil belongs to the oil groups (canola, soybean, pumkin, avocado, and cottonseed) having higher values (60–348 μg 100 g⁻¹) of phylloquinone. Pratical Application: Phylloquinone (or vitamin K₁) content in vegetable oils and particularly in olive oils is little documented. Phylloquinone exists under E and Z forms in oils. The recommended daily intake (for women and men) varies between 55 and 120 μg day⁻¹ for patients without anticoagulant medication. The knowledge of the two isomers content in vegetable oils is important in nutrition and heath fields because only the E isomer is bioactive. This review reports the small amount of phylloquinone content data in olive oil in spite of numerous scientific papers on this oil. The knowledge of phylloquinone isomers content in vegetable oils is important in nutrition and health fields since only the E isomer is bioactive. Olive oil is classified with vegetable oils showing a high phylloquinone content.