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Hairy roots of Dracocephalum moldavica: rosmarinic acid content and antioxidant potential

Weremczuk-Jeżyna, Izabela, Grzegorczyk-Karolak, Izabela, Frydrych, Barbara, Królicka, Aleksandra, Wysokińska, Halina
Acta physiologiae plantarum 2013 v.35 no.7 pp. 2095-2103
Dracocephalum, Rhizobium rhizogenes, antioxidant activity, biomass production, roots, rosmarinic acid, shoots, ultra-performance liquid chromatography, woody plants
Hairy roots of Dracocephalum moldavica L. were induced using Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain A4. Transformed roots were obtained from shoot explants with low transformation frequency of up to 3 %. The effects of different liquid media: Murashige and Skoog (MS), Gamborg et al. (B5) and Woody Plant (WP) with full- and half-strength (A1/2MS, A1/2B5, A1/2WP), on biomass accumulation and rosmarinic acid (RA) content were investigated. The hairy roots were cultured in photoperiod (16 h light/8 h dark) and darkness. Biomass of D. moldavica hairy roots was the highest (7.23 g flask(-1) of fresh weight and 0.89 g flask(-1) of dry weight) in the cultures grown in WP medium under periodic light. Ultra performance liquid chromatography analysis revealed the highest RA content (78 mg g(-1) dry wt) in roots cultured in A1/2B5 medium under photoperiod conditions. It was about tenfold higher compared to roots of field-grown mother plants. Antioxidant activities and total phenolic contents of methanolic extracts of D. moldavica hairy roots cultured in A1/2B5 and WP media under photoperiod and darkness and roots of field grown plants were compared. All extracts were investigated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging and phosphomolybdenum reduction assays. Total phenolic contents were estimated by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. The methanolic extract of D. moldavica hairy roots grown in A1/2B5 medium under photoperiod possessed the strongest effects on reducing Mo and DPPH radical scavenging. The activities were significantly higher (p a parts per thousand currency sign 0.05) than those of methanolic extract of roots of intact plants grown in the field. The most active methanolic extract of hairy roots was characterized by the highest level of rosmarinic acid and total content of phenolic compounds.