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Functional diversity in the pH signaling pathway: an overview of the pathway regulation in Neurospora crassa

Virgilio, Stela, Bertolini, MariaCélia
Current genetics 2018 v.64 no.3 pp. 529-534
Aspergillus, Neurospora crassa, environmental factors, functional diversity, homeostasis, metabolism, models, pH, pathogenicity, proteins, signal transduction, yeasts
Microorganisms have the ability to adapt and respond to different environmental conditions, whether they are stressful or not. Although the detection and/or responding mechanisms are often unknown, a large number of proteins may participate in signal transduction pathways involved in environmental stimulus to induce physiological and cellular events. Here, we examine the important role in cell homeostasis that extracellular pH plays in different fungi, and summarize the recent data reported in distinct organisms, by comparing them to the well-characterized mechanisms firstly described in Aspergillus and yeast. While most of the knowledge regarding the cellular processes triggered by the pH signaling pathway is based on the work in these two organisms, new data have been emerging in a diverse group of filamentous fungi, namely the involvement of this signaling pathway in metabolism and fungal pathogenicity. In this review, we present the major aspects of the pH signaling pathway in different model organisms, focusing on the protein components and the biological processes influenced by this pathway. In particular, we discuss novel cellular processes regulated by this pathway in the fungus Neurospora crassa. The diversity of functional processes that are affected under pH stress highlights how broadly this condition impacts on basic cellular processes in fungi and reveals how divergent fungal species are.